Category: info

Umbar was a major Númenorean
port city in Harad, off the Bay of Belfalas, that went from a major Gondorian trading port to a pirate haven. Founded by the Númenóreans during their colonizing of Middle Earth, under Ar-Pharazôn it was the staging point for his invasion and subjugation of Sauron. When Númenor collapsed the city came under the control of the King’s Men (Black Númenóreans who sided with the dark cult of Morgoth). With
Númenor destroyed and the remaining Númenorean colonies under control of
the Faithful (Those who stayed loyal to the Valar), Umbar became more closely
aligned with Morgoth’s other allies such as neighboring Harad. By the beginning
of the Third Age the city remained under Gondor’s control, and they were able
to repel many of the Harad invasions until the Kin-strife (Castamir’s attempt to seize power). The civil war weakened Gondor and allowed Umbar to become independent and the city become a corsair haven. The Corsairs of Umbar
were a mix of the King’s Men, Castamir the Usurper’s supporters from the Kin-strife, and local
Haradrim who joined the powerful city-state. Gondor was not able to reclaim the
city for hundreds of years due to the Great Plague, Mordor’s incursions into
Ithilien, and Corsair raids along the Belfalas coast. Significant battles in
the latter half of the Third Age include The Corsair raid on Pelargir which killed King Minardil. Minardil’s ancestor King Umbardacil briefly recapturing Umbar but
being ousted by the Haradrim, and Thorongil (Aragorn) leading
a raid that sabotaged the Corsair fleet just prior to the War of the Ring.
During the War of the Ring Umbar had joined Sauron and sent their remaining
fleet to attack Gondor, however Aragorn summoned the Army of the Dead
(Oathbreakers from the Second Age) to frighten and ultimately rout the
Corsairs. With the destruction of Sauron came the scattering and ruin of his
cult, and Umbar fell back into the fold of the Reunited Kingdom. Aragorn 2, Corsairs 0.

“There at
Pelargir lay the main fleet of Umbar, fifty great ships and smaller vessels
beyond count. Many of those that we pursued had reached the havens before us,
and brought their fear with them; and some of the ships had put off, seeking to
escape down the River or to reach the far shore; and many of the smaller craft
were ablaze. But the Haradrim, being now driven to the brink, turned at bay,
and they were fierce in despair; and they laughed when they looked on us, for
they were a great army still.

‘But
Aragorn halted and cried with a great voice: “Now come! By the Black Stone I
call you! “ And suddenly the Shadow Host that had hung back at the last came up
like a grey tide, sweeping all away before it. Faint cries I heard, and dim
horns blowing, and a murmur as of countless far voices: it was like the echo of
some forgotten battle in the Dark Years long ago. Pale swords were drawn; but I
know not whether their blades would still bite, for the Dead needed no longer
any weapon but fear. None would withstand them.

‘To every
ship they came that was drawn up, and then they passed over the water to those
that were anchored; and all the mariners were filled with a madness of terror
and leaped overboard, save the slaves chained to the oars. Reckless we rode
among our fleeing foes, driving them like leaves, until we came to the shore.
And then to each of the great ships that remained Aragorn sent one of the
Dúnedain, and they comforted the captives that were aboard, and bade them put
aside fear and be free.”

– Gimli
telling how the Three Hunters captured the Corsairs’ ships. Return of the King, The Last Debate

‘Not by the hand of man will he fall’ – Prophecy and End of Kings

One of the most enduring moments of the Lord of the Rings is Eowyn’s slaying of the Witch King and fulfilling the Prophecy of Glorfindel, but where did this prophecy come from? During the Witch King’s conquest of Arnor, King Eärnil II sent his son Prince Eärnur with a small army to help defend their ally. Eärnur’s army merged with an Elven host under Glorfindel, and the Host of the West met the Witch King’s army at Fornost. During the battle the Witch King rode issuing a challenge of single combat to Eärnur, who accepted the challenge, but the Witch King’s malice and intimidating aura frightened the Gondorian horses, and Eärnur’s horse fled in fear – taking the Prince with him. The Witch King mocked him for this, and as Glorfindel’s army came the Witch King escaped the battle. Eärnur regained control of his horse and wanted to chase them, but Glorfindel warned against it prophesying “Do not pursue him! He will not return to this land. Far off yet is his doom, and not by the hand of man will he fall”. Eärnur did not pursue, and though the battle was won his pride was hurt, and ultimately Arnor was destroyed. Mordor soon took Minas Ithil, Gondor’s chief position in Mordor, and made it into Minas Morgul, a fortress of dark sorcery. Eärnur came to the throne after the death of his father, and upon his ascension to the throne the Witch King, now based in Minas Morgul, issued his challenge again. Eärnur wished to fight him but was held back by his steward Mardil. Years later the Witch King issued another challenge, but this time Eärnur accepted. He left the Crown of Gondor on his father’s tomb, gathered an escort of knights and rode to Minas Morgul. He and his escort were never seen or heard from again. There was no heir and nobody claimed the throne. The line was broken and nobody wanted to risk another Kin-Strife. So began the Ruling Stewards as the caretakers of the throne, and the Crown of Gondor remained in the tombs until the Fourth Age and the coronation of King Elessar. Glorfindel’s prophecy remained part of legend and gave the Witch King more infamy. Hundred years later, During the Battle of Pelennor Fields in the War of the Ring, Merry the Hobbit broke the Witch King’s armor with a barrow-blade, and Dernhelm revealed himself to be Eowyn, Shieldmaiden of Rohan, who then slew the Witch King. His doom was met by the hand of Woman and Hobbit, and thus the prophecy came to pass.

“Now the descendants of the kings had become few. Their numbers had been greatly diminished in the Kin-strife; whereas since that time the kings had become jealous and watchful of those near akin. Often those on whom suspicion fell had fled to Umbar and there joined the rebels; while others had renounced their lineage and taken wives not of Númenorean blood. So it was that no claimant to the crown could be found who was of pure blood, or whose claim all would allow; and all feared the memory of the Kin-strife, knowing that if any such dissension arose again, then Gondor would perish. Therefore, though the years lengthened, the Steward continued to rule Gondor, and the crown of Elendil lay in the lap of King Eärnil in the Houses of the Dead, where Eärnur had left it. “

– The end of the line of kings from the Third Age into the Fourth. Appendices, Annals of the Kings and Rulers, The Numenorean Kings, Of Numenor

The Grey Havens (Sindarin: Mithlond) was a major
Elvish city in Eriador, on the coast of Lindon. Founded at the beginning of the
Second Age by elves who survived the War of Wrath, the city is noted for being
the primary port from Middle-Earth to Valinor.

Círdan

The
Shipwright was the lord of the Havens and Lindon after Gil-Galad’s death, Círdan ruled throughout
the Third and Fourth Ages. Notable people who came to Middle Earth through
Mithlond include the first Númenóreans, The Istari (Gandalf received the ring
of Narya from Círdan when he arrived), and the Gondorian fleet that fought
Angmar during the Angmar’s conquest of Arnor. The port was the biggest emigration
point for Elves leaving Middle Earth for Valinor. After the War of the Ring the
Last Riding of the Keepers of the Rings occurred, where Elrond, Galadriel,
Bilbo, Frodo, and most of the remaining High Elves went to the Havens and
sailed to Valinor. In the Fourth Age the Last Ship left from the Grey
Havens, which carried

Círdan

and
Celeborn. The Grey Havens never fell to siege or violence, and had an almost
religious significance to the Elves, as it was their final sight of Middle
Earth before they passed into the Blessed Realm.

“‘Well, here at last, dear friends, on the
shores of the Sea comes the end of our fellowship in Middle-earth. Go in peace!
I will not say: do not weep; for not all tears are an evil.’

Then Frodo kissed Merry and
Pippin, and last of all Sam, and went aboard; and the sails were drawn up, and
the wind blew, and slowly the ship slipped away down the long grey firth; and
the light of the glass of Galadriel that Frodo bore glimmered and was lost. And
the ship went out into the High Sea and passed on into the West, until at last
on a night of rain Frodo smelled a sweet fragrance on the air and heard the
sound of singing that came over the water. And then it seemed to him that as in
his dream in the house of Bombadil, the grey rain-curtain turned all to silver
glass and was rolled back, and he beheld white shores and beyond them a far
green country under a swift sunrise.”

– Gandalf saying goodbye as him and Frodo board the ship to go West. Samwise, Pippin, and Merry had gone with them to say goodbye. Of the remaining Hobbits Samwise would eventually cross the sea, as he had been a ringbearer, albeit briefly. Return of the King, The Grey Havens.

The Dead Marshes were a large swampland outside of The Black Gate in the Dagorlad plains. It is here that many great battles were fought, battles that scarred the area and created a wasteland. The name comes from the Battle of Dagorlad during the end of the 2nd Age. The Last Alliance of Men and Elves marched on Mordor to destroy Sauron, and succeeded at great cost. Over several months the casualites included Oropher and Amdír, Silvan Elves who disregarded Gil-Galad’s orders and became trapped and virtually destroyed by Mordor’s armies. Thranduil, Oropher’s son, returned with the Mirkwood with a third of his army. Most of Amdír’s host died in the marshes. The marshes were also the site of Gondor’s battles against the Easterlings in the middle of the Third Age. King Ondoher’s army was routed in the marshes, and the Gondor Captain Eärnil II destroyed the Wainrider army in the same war and area during the Battle of the Camp. A millennium later during the Quest of the Ring Frodo, Sam, and Gollum crossed the marshes to reach Mordor. Gollum tells them of the “candles of corpses” that haunt the marshes and lure wanderers into the water. Under the surface of the water the dead of past battles can be seen, which entranced Frodo and almost claimed him. The dead under the water may have been illusions or the results of dark magic. Tolkien has said that “The Dead Marshes and the approaches to the Morannon owe something to Northern France after the Battle of the Somme. They owe more to William Morris and his Huns and Romans.” (Letter to Professor L. W. Forster, 12/31/1960, Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien). The Somme Offensive was a battle during the First World War notorious for being one of the bloodiest battles in recorded history, a battle that Professor Tolkien had served in. William Morris’ fantasy writing had recurring themes of warfare and the supernatural, notably in A Tale of the House of the Wolfings and All the Kindreds of the Mark.

“‘I don’t know,’ said Frodo in a dreamlike voice. ‘But I have seen them too. In the pools when the candles were lit. They lie in all the pools, pale faces, deep deep under the dark water. I saw them: grim faces and evil, and noble faces and sad. Many faces proud and fair, and weeds in their silver hair. But all foul, all rotting, all dead. A fell light is in them.’ Frodo hid his eyes in his hands. ‘I know not who they are; but I thought I saw there Men and Elves, and Orcs beside them.’

”`Yes, yes,’ said Gollum. `All dead, all rotten. Elves and Men and Orcs. The Dead Marshes. There was a great battle long ago, yes, so they told him when Sméagol was young, when I was young before the Precious came. It was a great battle. Tall Men with long swords, and terrible Elves, and Orcses shrieking. They fought on the plain for days and months at the Black Gates. But the Marshes have grown since then, swallowed up the graves; always creeping, creeping.’

‘But that is an age and more ago,’ said Sam. ‘The Dead can’t be really there! Is it some devilry hatched in the Dark Land? ’

`Who knows? Sméagol doesn’t know,’ answered Gollum. ‘You cannot reach them, you cannot touch them. We tried once, yes, precious. I tried once; but you cannot reach them. Only shapes to see, perhaps, not to touch. No precious! All dead.’

Sam looked darkly at him and shuddered again, thinking that he guessed why Sméagol had tried to touch them.’“

– Frodo, Sam and Gollum passing through the Dead Marshes. Two Towers, The Passage of the Marshes.

The Dead Marshes were a large swampland outside of The Black Gate in the Dagorlad plains. It is here that many great battles were fought, battles that scarred the area and created a wasteland. The name comes from the Battle of Dagorlad during the end of the 2nd Age. The Last Alliance of Men and Elves marched on Mordor to destroy Sauron, and succeeded at great cost. Over several months the casualites included Oropher and Amdír, Silvan Elves who disregarded Gil-Galad’s orders and became trapped and virtually destroyed by Mordor’s armies. Thranduil, Oropher’s son, returned with the Mirkwood with a third of his army. Most of Amdír’s host died in the marshes. The marshes were also the site of Gondor’s battles against the Easterlings in the middle of the Third Age. King Ondoher’s army was routed in the marshes, and the Gondor Captain Eärnil II destroyed the Wainrider army in the same war and area during the Battle of the Camp. A millennium later during the Quest of the Ring Frodo, Sam, and Gollum crossed the marshes to reach Mordor. Gollum tells them of the “candles of corpses” that haunt the marshes and lure wanderers into the water. Under the surface of the water the dead of past battles can be seen, which entranced Frodo and almost claimed him. The dead under the water may have been illusions or the results of dark magic. Tolkien has said that “The Dead Marshes and the approaches to the Morannon owe something to Northern France after the Battle of the Somme. They owe more to William Morris and his Huns and Romans.” (Letter to Professor L. W. Forster, 12/31/1960, Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien). The Somme Offensive was a battle during the First World War notorious for being one of the bloodiest battles in recorded history, a battle that Professor Tolkien had served in. William Morris’ fantasy writing had recurring themes of warfare and the supernatural, notably in A Tale of the House of the Wolfings and All the Kindreds of the Mark.

“‘I don’t know,’ said Frodo in a dreamlike voice. ‘But I have seen them too. In the pools when the candles were lit. They lie in all the pools, pale faces, deep deep under the dark water. I saw them: grim faces and evil, and noble faces and sad. Many faces proud and fair, and weeds in their silver hair. But all foul, all rotting, all dead. A fell light is in them.’ Frodo hid his eyes in his hands. ‘I know not who they are; but I thought I saw there Men and Elves, and Orcs beside them.’

”`Yes, yes,’ said Gollum. `All dead, all rotten. Elves and Men and Orcs. The Dead Marshes. There was a great battle long ago, yes, so they told him when Sméagol was young, when I was young before the Precious came. It was a great battle. Tall Men with long swords, and terrible Elves, and Orcses shrieking. They fought on the plain for days and months at the Black Gates. But the Marshes have grown since then, swallowed up the graves; always creeping, creeping.’

‘But that is an age and more ago,’ said Sam. ‘The Dead can’t be really there! Is it some devilry hatched in the Dark Land? ’

`Who knows? Sméagol doesn’t know,’ answered Gollum. ‘You cannot reach them, you cannot touch them. We tried once, yes, precious. I tried once; but you cannot reach them. Only shapes to see, perhaps, not to touch. No precious! All dead.’

Sam looked darkly at him and shuddered again, thinking that he guessed why Sméagol had tried to touch them.’“

– Frodo, Sam and Gollum passing through the Dead Marshes. Two Towers, The Passage of the Marshes.

The Houses of Healing was a large infirmary in the higher levels of Minas Tirith. As it’s name implies, it was used as a hospital for the sick and injured of Gondor. It features prominently after the Battle of Pelennor Fields. Faramir was sent here after being saved from Denethor’s attempt to burn him. Merry and

Éowyn

were also sent here after fighting the Witch King in the battle, where they both contracted the Black Shadow. Ioreth, the eldest woman working in the Houses of Healing, was worried about all three, and their fatal conditions, proclaiming that ‘The hands of the king are the hands of a healer. And so the rightful king could ever be known.’. Gandalf heard this and summoned Aragorn to the Houses to help, where Aragorn proved his kingship (and knowledge of old lore) by caring for them all with Athelas (Kingsfoil in Common tongue), the herb that healed them and could defeat the Black Shadow. While the Armies of the West marched on the Black Gate Faramir and

Éowyn

had still not left the Houses, and though

Éowyn

initially wanted to join the battle, she decided to remain with Faramir, where the two fell in love.

“So at last Faramir and Éowyn and Meriadoc were laid in beds in the Houses of Healing; and there they were tended well. For though all lore was in these latter days fallen from its fullness of old, the leechcraft of Gondor was still wise, and skilled in the healing of wound and hurt, and all such sickness as east of the Sea mortal men were subject to. Save old age only. For that they had found no cure; and indeed the span of their lives had now waned to little more than that of other men, and those among them who passed the tale of five score years with vigour were grown few, save in some houses of purer blood. But now their art and knowledge were baffled; for there were many sick of a malady that would not be healed; and they called it the Black Shadow, for it came from the Nazgûl. And those who were stricken with it fell slowly into an ever deeper dream, and then passed to silence and a deadly cold, and so died. And it seemed to the tenders of the sick that on the Halfling and on the Lady of Rohan this malady lay heavily. Still at whiles as the morning wore away they would speak, murmuring in their dreams; and the watchers listened to all that they said, hoping perhaps to learn something that would help them to understand their hurts. But soon they began to fall down into the darkness, and as the sun turned west a grey shadow crept over their faces. But Faramir burned with a fever that would not abate.“

– The wounded after the Battle of Pelennor Fields, and before Aragorn comes to the rescue. Return of the King, The Houses of Healing.

The Barrow-downs (Sindarin: Tyrn Gorthad) were a hilly area near Bree, in Eriador, that served as a graveyard for the kings of Arnor and the Edain. Initially the region was inhabited by the Edain during the First Age; the first Men in Middle Earth who fought during the War of Wrath. When the

Númenóreans

came they settled in the region and upon Elendil’s arrival the Barrow-downs were brought into the Kingdom of Arnor. During this time it became marked with large tombs and barrows for the Kings of Arnor. Arnor broke up and was ultimately destroyed by Angmar, under the Witch-King. Cardolan (The Arnorian splinter kingdom where the barrows are located) became a refuge for the

Dúnedain

fleeing south from Angmar’s conquests, they were eventually defeated and the area became desolate. In order to ensure the

Dúnedain

could not re-establish Cardolan or hide in the Barrows, the Witch-King cursed the land and sent Wights to haunt the region. During the Third Age the Barrow-downs are feared by the men of Bree and the hobbits of the Shire. Frodo, Sam, Merry, and Pippin ventured into the Great Barrows during their quest to Rivendell. After leaving Tom Bombadil’s House they got lost in the great fog and were captured by the Wights. They awakened in one of the dark tombs, surrounded by old treasures and the chanting Wights. Frodo awoke first, broke free of the Wight’s spell, and sang Tom Bombadil’s song. Tom Bombadil broke into the tomb, banished the wights, and helped Frodo carry his companions out. He then gifted the Hobbits each a dagger from the barrows, which to them was long enough to be a sword. These swords were made by the

Númenóreans

of Arnor. The barrow-blades would serve the hobbits throughout their quest. During the Battle of Pelennor Fields the Witch-King’s armor would be undone by Merry stabbing him in the back, as only a blade of Westernesse (Númenórean) work could destroy his armor. Pippin would slay a troll during the Battle at the Black Gate. Sam lost his sword in Cirith Ungol but recovered it from Gandalf. Frodo remained with Sting.

“They heard of the Great Barrows, and the green mounds, and the stone-rings upon the hills and in the hollows among the hills. Sheep were bleating in flocks. Green walls and white walls rose. There were fortresses on the heights. Kings of little kingdoms fought together, and the young Sun shone like fire on the red metal of their new and greedy swords. There was victory and defeat; and towers fell, fortresses were burned, and flames went up into the sky. Gold was piled on the biers of dead kings and queens; and mounds covered them, and the stone doors were shut; and the grass grew over all. Sheep walked for a while biting the grass, but soon the hills were empty again. A shadow came out of dark places far away, and the bones were stirred in the mounds. Barrow-wights walked in the hollow places with a clink of rings on cold fingers, and gold chains in the wind.’ Stone rings grinned out of the ground like broken teeth in the moonlight.

The hobbits shuddered. Even in the Shire the rumour of the Barrow-wights of the Barrow-downs beyond the Forest had been heard. But it was not a tale that any hobbit liked to listen to, even by a comfortable fireside far away. These four now suddenly remembered what the joy of this house had driven from their minds: the house of Tom Bombadil nestled under the very shoulder of those dreaded hills. They lost the thread of his tale and shifted uneasily, looking aside at one another.”

 – Tom Bombadil telling the Hobbits about the regions of Eriador. Fellowship of the Ring, 

In the House of Tom Bombadil

The Watchers of Cirith Ungol were two statues guarding the entrance to the Tower. They were formidable black statues with three joined bodies, three vulture-like faces, and clawed hands. The orcs of the Tower mention them being “tark’s work”, which references the Numenoreans, as Cirith Ungol was built by them in the beginning of the Third Age but lost to Sauron. During the time of the Quest of the Ring they are known to contain an evil spirit. Gandalf warns the Fellowship of them as the “Silent Watchers” as they plan their infiltration of Mordor. They functioned as both sentry and alarm system for any intruders. Samwise encountered the Watchers during his mission to save Frodo after his capture. He could not bypass the Watchers as they created an invisible obstacle with strength compared to Shelob’s web. He used the Phial of Galadriel to break through the barrier. As he passed the Watchers, they let out a shrill cry, a warning to the denizens of Mordor and the orcs of the Tower. Samwise saved Frodo, feeling the Watcher’s dread until the escape where he had to fight the Watchers’ barrier once more. He used the Phial, but this time Frodo and Sam conjured some Elvish magic to break through. As they fled, the Watchers’ shrieked for the last time, and the gateway came crashing down. Better than a “Beware of Dog” sign.

“They were like great figures seated upon thrones. Each had three joined bodies, and three heads facing outward, and inward, and across the gateway. The heads had vulture-faces, and on their great knees were laid clawlike hands. They seemed to be carved out of huge blocks of stone, immovable, and yet they were aware: some dreadful spirit of evil vigilance abode in them. They knew an enemy. Visible or invisible none could pass unheeded. They would forbid his entry, or his escape. Hardening his will Sam thrust forward once again, and halted with a jerk, staggering as if from a blow upon his breast and head. Then greatly daring, because he could think of nothing else to do, answering a sudden thought that came to him, he drew slowly out the phial of Galadriel and held it up. Its white light quickened swiftly, and the shadows under the dark arch fled. The monstrous Watchers sat there cold and still, revealed in all their hideous shape. For a moment Sam caught a glitter in the black stones of their eyes, the very malice of which made him quail; but slowly he felt their will waver and crumble into fear.“  – Samwise coming face to face with the Two Watchers. Return of the King, The Tower of Cirith Ungol.

The Helcaraxë, also referred to as the Grinding Ice, was a large glacier connecting Aman and Middle Earth during the First Age. It is described as a frozen wasteland and a bridge between the two worlds. It was first noted as the escape route of Melkor and Ungoliant after they defiled the Two Trees and were being hunted by the Valar. It was later part of the mass exodus of Noldor from Valinor into Middle Earth. Fëanor had rallied his people to war against Morgoth for the Silmarils, and turned his back on the Valar. He led his host to the shores of Aman, seizing the boats from the Teleri in the First Kinslaying with aid from the host of Fingolfin. With these boats he lead his own host across the sea to Middle Earth, but when they landed in Beleriand, they burned the ships -stranding Fingolfin’s people in Aman. Fëanor believed them to be useless, and still

harbored

hatred for Fingolfin from an earlier feud. Fingolfin refused to return to the Valar in shame after having followed Feanor, and in a curse to Fëanor’s name, and lead his people north to cross the Helcaraxë, to meet him in Middle Earth. Among the people that crossed were Galadriel and Finrod. Among those who died were Elenwë, wife of Turgon, and many others.The Helcaraxë was destroyed during the War of Wrath, along with most of Beleriand. A modern world comparison would be the Beringia land bridge formed millions of years ago, where humans from Asia migrated into North America.

“The Noldor came at last far into the north of Arda; and they saw the first teeth of the ice that floated in the sea, and knew that they were drawing nigh to the 

Helcaraxë, For between the land of Aman that in the north curved eastward, and the east-shores of Endor (Which is Middle-earth) that bore westward, there was a narrow strait, through which the chill waters of the Encircling Sea and the waves of Belegaer flowed together, and there were vast fogs and mists of deathly cold, and the sea-streams were filled with clashing hills of ice and the grinding of ice deep-sunken. Such was the Helcaraxë, and there none yet had dared to tread save the Valar only and Ungoliant.” – The Helcaraxë description, Of the Flight of the Noldor, The Silmarillion.

camellia93:

The Silmarillion
http://www.ae-lib.org.ua/texts-c/tolkien__the_silmarillion__en.htm

The Hobbit
https://www.lake.k12.fl.us/cms/lib/FL01000799/Centricity/Domain/4432/The%20Hobbit%20byJ%20%20RR%20Tolkien%20EBOOK.pdf

The Lord of the Rings
1) http://ae-lib.org.ua/texts-c/tolkien__the_lord_of_the_rings_1__en.htm
2) http://ae-lib.org.ua/texts-c/tolkien__the_lord_of_the_rings_2__en.htm
3) http://ae-lib.org.ua/texts-c/tolkien__the_lord_of_the_rings_3__en.htm

The Children of Hurin
https://ia801006.us.archive.org/3/items/J.R.R.TolkienTheChildrenOfHurin/J.R.R.Tolkien%20-%20The%20Children%20of%20Hurin.pdf

Beren and Lúthien
(best available version) https://www.dropbox.com/s/3sdi8p1p8b3ctvi/JRR%20%26%20Christopher%20Tolkien%20-%20Beren%20and%20Luthien%20%28v5.0%29.epub?dl=0
and (web version) https://www.redbrick.dcu.ie/~melmoth/p1.html

Unfinished Tales
http://ae-lib.org.ua/texts-c/tolkien__unfinished_tales__en.htm

History of Middle-earth
1-2. The Book of Lost Tales 1 and 2 http://tolkienjrrlosttales.blogspot.co.uk/
3. The Lays of Beleriand http://www.e-reading.club/bookreader.php/138990/Tolkien_03_The_Lays_of_Beleriand.pdf
4. The Shaping of Middle-earth https://vk.com/doc20746184_255404401?hash=ff4eee42a196ecb339&dl=7c37abba760696ff17
5. The Lost Road and Other Writings http://www.e-reading.club/bookreader.php/138991/Tolkien_05_The_Lost_Road_and_Other_Writings.pdf
6. The Return of the Shadow (The History of The Lord of the Rings I)  http://www.e-reading.club/bookreader.php/138993/Tolkien_06_The_Return_of_the_Shadow.pdf
7. The Treason of Isengard (The History of The Lord of the Rings II) http://www.e-reading.club/bookreader.php/138995/Tolkien_07_The_Treason_of_Isengard.pdf
8. The War of the Ring (The History of The Lord of the Rings III) http://www.e-reading.club/bookreader.php/138997/Tolkien_08_The_War_of_the_Ring.pdf
9. Sauron Defeated (The History of The Lord of the Rings IV) http://www.e-reading.club/bookreader.php/138987/Tolkien_09_Sauron_Defeated.pdf
10. Morgoth’s Ring https://1drv.ms/b/s!Ao3sDPKlSLY5gxZPojP6tng2xNgC
11. The War of the Jewels http://www.e-reading.club/bookreader.php/138996/Tolkien_11_The_War_of_the_Jewels.pdf
12. The Peoples of Middle-earth http://vk.com/doc20746184_255404477?hash=ea2f3c0d696aa70b58&dl=285dc85f4f3a91b2ea

The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien
https://timedotcom.files.wordpress.com/2014/12/the_letters_of_j.rrtolkien.pdf

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Tolkien’s books irrelevant to Middle-earth:
Tales from the Perilous Realm
http://1.droppdf.com/files/ww8AQ/tales-from-the-perilous-realm-roverandom-j-r-r-tolkien.pdf

The Fall of King Arthur
https://www.readanybook.com/online/565599#357338

The Legend of Sigurd and Gudrún
http://www.readsbird.com/legend-sigurd-and-gudrun-j-r-r-tolkien

Essay on Fairy Stories
http://brainstorm-services.com/wcu-2004/fairystories-tolkien.pdf

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Links to learn Tolkien’s languages:

Sindarin
http://sindarinlessons.weebly.com/lessons.html

Quenya
http://folk.uib.no/hnohf/qcourse.htm

Ardalambion
One of the most comprehensive sites about all Tolkien’s invented languages
https://folk.uib.no/hnohf/

For whom it may concern.